Fokalizm (vs egocentryzm) a porównawczy optymizm

Kornel Świątnicki, Agnieszka Barakowska, Maja Kiżys

Abstrakt


W artykule zostały przedstawione i skonfrontowane empirycznie dwie modne koncepcje wyjaśniające zjawisko porównawczego optymizmu: egocentryczna i fokalistyczna. Wykonano dwa badania, których wyniki w jednoznaczny sposób potwierdzają zasadność koncepcji fokalistycznej. Okazało się bowiem, że odwrócenie kierunku porównania, w taki sposób, aby badani porównywali cudzą sytuację z własną sytuacją (a nie własną sytuację z sytuacją innych ludzi) spowodowało odwrócenie znanej zależności między spostrzeganą częstością zdarzeń i wielkością porównawczego optymizmu, który rósł wraz ze wzrostem częstości zdarzeń – w przypadku zdarzeń niepożądanych (Badanie 1) i malał – w przypadku zdarzeń pożądanych (Badanie 2). Prezentowane badania są pierwszymi w literaturze, w których zaobserwowaną taki wzór zależności.

Słowa kluczowe


porównawczy optymizm, kierunek porównania, egocentryzm, fokalizm.

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Bibliografia


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