Dlaczego kotwica kotwiczy? Przegląd mechanizmów i zasad działania heurystyki zakotwiczenia

Paweł Tomczak

Abstrakt


Celem niniejszego artykułu jest przegląd wiedzy dotyczącej heurystyki zakotwiczenia. Mimo silnego ugruntowania empirycznego wytłumaczenia efektu zakotwiczenia nie można sprowadzić do działania jednego mechanizmu psychologicznego. W pierwszej części artykułu zostaną omówione klasyczne mechanizmy kotwiczenia – mechanizm niewystarczającego dopasowania i model selektywnej dostępności. Przeanalizowane będą również alternatywne podejścia teoretyczne do wytłumaczenia tego efektu. W drugiej – procedury eksperymentalne wykorzystywane do badania efektu kotwiczenia. Według literatury kluczowe aspekty determinujące skuteczność kotwiczenia to m.in. ilość zasobów uwagowych poświęconych wartości kotwiczącej i spójność kotwicy z celem szacowania. Jednakże zestawienie zasad kotwiczenia z rezultatami eksperymentów wykorzystujących różne procedury wyraźnie pokazuje, że zasady te nie mają charakteru uniwersalnego. Wskazane problemy natury teoretycznej stanowią propozycję kierunku dalszych badań nastawionych na ujęcie efektu zakotwiczenia w ramach jednego mechanizmu psychologicznego.


Słowa kluczowe


heurystyka zakotwiczenia, szacowanie, warunki kotwiczenia

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7206/DEC.1733-0092.96

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