Gry eksperymentalne i manowce racjonalistycznego egoizmu

Szymon Czarnik

Abstrakt


Od ponad półwiecza nawarstwiają się wyniki eksperymentalne ukazujące nikłą wartość prognostyczną równowagi doskonałej, wyprowadzonej z zasady racjonalistycznego egoizmu. Artykuł stanowi krótki przegląd popularnych gier eksperymentalnych, w których uczestnicy podejmują decyzje o charakterze monetarnym, wpływające bezpośrednio na rozkład dochodów w grupie (w szczególności: w diadzie). Omówione są rezultaty badań nad przetargiem ultymatywnym, dyktatem i dylematem dyktatora, dylematem więźnia, grą zaufania, stonogą, wymianą darów i grą dobra publicznego. Szczególna rola przypada dylematowi dyktatora, badającemu gotowość do poprawy położenia partnera interakcji za cenę pogorszenia pozycji własnej. Jak się okazuje, ten elementarny dylemat osobisty stanowi tworzywo kilku bardziej złożonych i lepiej znanych gier dwu- i wieloosobowych.

Słowa kluczowe


gry eksperymentalne, racjonalistyczny egoizm, ultimatum, dyktat, dylemat dyktatora, dylemat więźnia, gra zaufania, stonoga, wymiana darów, gra dobra publicznego.

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