Nierealistyczny optymizm wczoraj i dziś – nowe spojrzenie na mechanizmy zniekształceń w społecznych sądach porównawczych

Marzena Cypryańska

Abstrakt


Nierealistyczny optymizm, czyli tendencję do uprzywilejowanego widzenia siebie i własnej przyszłości w porównaniach z Innymi, rozpatrywano zwykle jako przejaw rozumowania motywacyjnego. W ostatnim czasie na plan pierwszy przesunęły się wyjaśnienia pozamotywacyjne. Niniejszy artykuł obejmuje przegląd nowych interpretacji, ze szczególnym zwróceniem uwagi na wyjaśnienia poznawcze. W pierwszej części jest krótkie omówienie interpretacji motywacyjnych. Następnie przedstawione są dominujące w najnowszej literaturze przedmiotu interpretacje poznawcze: egocentryzm, fokalizm, podejście LOGE. Ostatnia część poświęcona jest propozycji alternatywnych interpretacji zniekształceń porównawczych, które nawiązują do modelu podobieństwa Tversky'ego (1977).

Słowa kluczowe


nierealistyczny optymizm, zniekształcenia porównawcze, fokalizm, egocentryzm, LOGE, model podobieństwa.

Pełny tekst / Download full text:

PDF

Bibliografia


Alicke, M. D. 1985. Global self−evaluation as determined by the desirability and controllability of trait adjectives. "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" 49: 1621−1630.

Alicke, M.D., Klotz, M.L., Breitenbecher, D.L., Yurak, T.J. i Vredenburg, M.L. 1995. Personal contact, individuation, and the Better−Than Average−Effect. "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" 68: 804−825.

Brown, J.D. 1986. Evaluations of self and others: Self−enhancement biases in social judgments. "Social Cognition" 4: 353−376.

Brown, J.D. 1990. Evaluating one's abilities: Shortcuts and stumbling blocks on the road to self−knowledge. "Journal of Experimental Social Psychology" 26: 149−167.

Burger, J.M. i Burns, L. 1988. The illusion of unique invulnerability and the use of effective contraception. "Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin" 14: 264−270.

Burger, J.M. i Palmer, M.L. 1992. Changes in and generalization of unrealistic optimism following experiences with stressful events: Reactions to the 1989 California earthquake. "Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin" 18: 39−43.

Buunk, B.P. 1998. Social comparison and optimism about one's relational future: order effects in social judgment. "European Journal of Social Psychology" 28: 777−786.

Buunk, B.P. i Van der Eijnden, R.J.J.M. 1997. Perceived prevalence, perceived superiority, and relationship satisfaction: Most relationships are good, but ours is the best. "Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin" 23: 219−228.

Camerer, C.F. i Lovallo, D. 1999. Overconfidence and excess entry: an experimental approach. "American Economic Review" 89: 306−318.

Chambers, J.R. i Windschitl, P.D. 2004. Biases in social comparative judgments: The role of nonmotivated factors in above−average and comparative−optimism effects. "Psychological Bulletin" 130: 813−838.

Chambers, J.R., Windschitl, P.D. i Suls, J. 2003. Egocentrism, event frequency, and comparative optimism: When what happens frequently is "more likely to happen to me". "Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin" 29: 1343−1356.

Colvin, R. i Block, J. 1994. Do positive illusions foster mental health? An examination of the Taylor and Brown formulation. "Psychological Bulletin" 116: 3−20.

Cypryańska, M. 2007. Nierealistyczny optymizm jako przejaw zniekształceń poznawczych w kontekście asymetrii w ocenie podobieństw. Niepublikowana praca doktorska, Instytut Psychologii PAN, Warszawa.

Cypryańska, M. i Golec de Zavala, A. 2008. The Under − and Overestimation Effects in Comparative Judgments − Assimilation and Contrast Mechanisms. "Polish Psychological Bulletin" 39 (4): 217−225.

Cypryańska, M. i Krejtz, I. 2005. Nierealistyczny optymizm − optymizm przewidywań czy zniekształcenia poznawcze przypadkiem optymistyczne? "Studia Psychologiczne" 43 (4): 37−48.

Czapiński, J. 1992. Psychologia szczęścia: przegląd badań i zarys teorii cebulowej. Poznań: Akademos.

Czapiński, J. 1998. Jakość życia Polaków w czasie zmiany społecznej. Warszawa: Instytut Studiów Społecznych Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego. [www. diagnoza. com]

Czapiński, J. i Panek, T. (red.) 2003. Diagnoza społeczna 2003. Warszawa: Polskie Towarzystwo Statystyczne i Wyższa Szkoła Psychologii i Zarządzania. [www. diagnoza. com]

Dunning, D. 2001. On the motives underlying social cognition, W: A. Tesser, N. Schwarz (red.). "Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology: Intraindividual Processes" s. 348−374. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Dunning, D. i Hayes, A. F. 1996. Evidence for egocentric comparison in social judgment. "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" 71: 213−229.

Eiser, J.R., Pahl, S. i Prins, Y.R.A. 2001. Optimism, pessimism, and the direction of Self−Other Comparisons. "Journal of Experimental Social Psychology" 37: 77−84.

Epley, N. i Dunning, D. 2000. Feeling "holier than thou": are self−serving assessments produced by errors in self− or social prediction. "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" 79: 861−875.

Fox, C.R. i Levav, J. 2000. Familiarity bias and belief reversal in relative likelihood judgment. "Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes" 82: 268−292.

Giladi, E.E. i Klar, Y. 2002. When standards are wide of the mark: nonselective superiority and inferiority biases in comparative judgments of objects and concepts. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: General" 131: 538−551.

Hamilton, D.L. i Sherman, S.J. 1996. Perceiving persons and groups. "Psychological Review" 103: 336−355.

Handmer, J. 2000. Are flood warnings futile? Risk communication in emergencies. "The Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies" 2. [www.massey.ac.nz/~trauma/]

Harris, P.R., Griffin, D.W. i Murray, S. 2008. Testing the limits of optimistic bias: event and person moderators in a multilevel framework. "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" 95: 1225−1237.

Harris, P. i Middleton, W. 1994. The illusion of control and optimism about health: On being less at risk but no more in control than others. "British Journal of Social Psychology" 33: 369−386.

Heine, S.J. i Lehman, D.R. 1995. Cultural variation in unrealistic optimism: Does the West feel more invulnerable than East? "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" 68: 595−607.

Helson, H. 1964. Adaptation−Level Theory. New York: Harper & Row.

Helveg−Larsen, M. i Shepperd, J. 2001. Do moderators of the optimistic bias affect personal or target risk estimates? "A review of the literature. Personality and Social Psychology Review" 51: 74−95.

Hodges, S.D. 2005. A feature−based model of self−other comparisons. W: M.D. Alicke, D.A. Dunning i J.I. Krueger (red.), The self in social judgment (s. 131−153). New York: Psychology Press.

Holyoak, K.J. i Gordon, P.C. 1983. Social reference points. "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" 44: 881−887.

Hoorens, V. 1995. Self−favoring biases, self−presentation, and self−other asymmetry in social comparison. "Journal of Personality" 63: 793−817.

Hoorens, V. i Buunk, B.P. 1993. Social comparison of health risks: Locus of control, the person−positivity bias, und unrealistic optimism. "Journal of Applied Social Psychology" 23: 291−302.

Jarymowicz, M. 1988. Spostrzeganie samego siebie. Wprowadzenie. "Studia Psychologiczne" 2: 8−14.

Karylowski, J. 1990. Social reference points and accessibility of trait−related information in self−other similarity judgments. "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" 58: 975−983.

Klar, Y. 2002. Way beyond compare: Nonselective superiority and inferiority biases in judging randomly assigned group members relative to their peers. "Journal of Experimental Social Psychology" 38: 331−351.

Klar, Y. i Giliadi, E.E. 1997. No one in my group can be below the group's average: A robust positivity bias in favor of anonymous peers. "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" 73: 885−901.

Klar, Y. i Giladi, E.E. 1999. Are most people happier than their peers or are they just happy? "Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin" 25: 585−594.

Klayman, J. i Ha, Y.W. 1987. Confirmation, disconfirmation, and information in hypothesis testing. "Psychological Review" 94: 211−228.

Klein, W.M. i Weinstein, N.D. 1997. Social comparison and unrealistic optimism about personal risk. W: B.P. Buunk i F.X. Gibbons (red.), Health, coping, and wellbeing: perspectives from social comparison theory (s. 25−61). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Krizan, Z. i Windschitl, P. D. 2007. Team allegiance can lead to both optimistic and pessimistic predictions. "Journal of Experimental Social Psychology" 43: 327−333.

Kruger, J. 1999. Lake Wobegon be gone! The "below−average effect" and the egocentric nature of comparative ability judgments. "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" 77: 221−232.

Kruger, J. i Burrus, J. 2004. Egocentrism and focalism in unrealistic optimism (and pessimism). "Journal of Experimental Social Psychology" 40: 332−340.

Kruger, J., Windschitl, P.D., Burrus, J., Fessel, F., & Chambers, J.R. 2008. The rational side of egocentrism in social comparisons. "Journal of Experimental Social Psychology" 44: 220−232.

Kunda, A. 1990. The case for motivated reasoning. "Psychological Bulletin" 108: 480−498.

Malmendier, U. i Tate, G. 2005. CEO overconfidence and corporate investment. "Journal of Finance" 60: 2661−2700.

McConnell, A.R., Sherman, S.J. i Hamilton, D.L. 1997. Target entitativity: Implications for information processing about individual and group targets. "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" 72: 750−762.

Menon, G., Kyung, E.J. i Agrawal, N. 2009. Biases in social comparisons: Optimism or pessimism? "Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes" 108: 39−52.

Messick, D.M., Bloom, S., Boldizar, J.P. i Samuelson, C.D. 1985. Why we are fairer than others. "Journal of Experimental Social Psychology" 21: 480−500.

Moore, D.A. i Small, D.A. 2007. Error and bias in comparative judgment: on being both better and worse than we think we are. "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" 92: 972−989.

Niewiarowski, J. i Cypryańska, M. 2009. In comparison of the Self to the others − do we really think about others? Activation of cognitive representations during the comparative judgments. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Otten, W. i Van der Pligt, J. 1996. Context effects in the measurement of comparative optimism in probability judgments. "Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology" 15: 80−101.

Perloff, L.S. i Fetzer, B.K. 1986. Self−other judgments and perceived invulnerability to victimization. "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" 50: 502−510.

Regan, P., Snyder, M. i Kassin, S. 1995. Unrealistic optimism: Self−enhancement or person positivity? "Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin" 21: 1073−1082.

Rogers, T.B., Kuiper, N.A. i Kirker, W.S. 1977. Self−reference and the encoding of personal information. "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" 35: 677−688.

Taylor, S.E. i Brown, J.D. 1988. Illusion and well−being: A social psychological perspective on mental health. "Psychological Bulletin" 103: 193−210.

Tversky, A. 1977. Features of similarity. "Psychological Review" 84: 327−352.

Tversky, A. i Gati, I. 1978. Studie of similarity. W: E. Rosch i B. Lloyd (red.), Cognition and categorization (81−98). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Tversky, A. i Koehler, D.J. 1994. Support theory: A nonextensional representation of subjective probability. "Psychological Review" 101: 547−567.

Weinstein, N.D. 1980. Unrealistic optimism about future life events. "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" 39: 806−820.

Weinstein, N.D. i Lachendro, E. 1982. Egocentrism as a source of unrealistic optimism. "Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin" 8: 195−200.

Wilson, T.D., Wheatley, T., Meyers, J.M., Gilbert, D.T. i Axsom, D. 2000. Focalism: A source of durability bias in affective forecasting. "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" 78: 821−836.

Windschitl, P.D., Kruger, J. i Simms, E. 2003. The influence of egocentrism and focalism on people's optimism in competitions: When what affects us equally affects me more. "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" 85: 389−408.

Wojciszke, B. 2002. Człowiek wśród ludzi. Zarys psychologii społecznej. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe "Scholar".


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.